Gender inequality

Ryota Mugiyama


September 8, 2023


第1回 日本が抱える大きな問題(9月8日)


第2回 賃金に差が生まれる理由(9月12日)

OECD. 2023. Gender wage gap. OECD Data. https://data.oecd.org/earnwage/gender-wage-gap.htm.

Hanushek, Eric A., Guido Schwerdt, Simon Wiederhold, and Ludger Woessmann. 2015. “Returns to Skills around the World: Evidence from PIAAC.” European Economic Review 73:103–30.


厚生労働省,2022,「令和4年賃金構造基本統計調査 結果の概況」厚生労働省.https://www.mhlw.go.jp/toukei/itiran/roudou/chingin/kouzou/z2022/index.html

第3回 性別職域分離と賃金格差(9月13日)

Penner, Andrew M., Trond Petersen, Are Skeie Hermansen, Anthony Rainey, István Boza, Marta M. Elvira, Olivier Godechot, Martin Hällsten, Lasse Folke Henriksen, Feng Hou, Aleksandra Kanjuo Mrčela, Joe King, Naomi Kodama, Tali Kristal, Alena Křížková, Zoltán Lippényi, Silvia Maja Melzer, Eunmi Mun, Paula Apascaritei, Dustin Avent-Holt, Nina Bandelj, Gergely Hajdu, Jiwook Jung, Andreja Poje, Halil Sabanci, Mirna Safi, Matthew Soener, Donald Tomaskovic-Devey, and Zaibu Tufail. 2022. “Within-Job Gender Pay Inequality in 15 Countries.” Nature Human Behaviour doi: 10.1038/s41562-022-01470-z.


Polavieja, Javier G., and Lucinda Platt. 2014. “Nurse or Mechanic? The Role of Parental Socialization and Children’s Personality in the Formation of Sex-Typed Occupational Aspirations.” Social Forces 93(1):31–61.

Correll, Shelley J. 2001. “Gender and the Career Choice Process: The Role of Biased Self‐Assessments.” American Journal of Sociology 106(6):1691–1730.

Jonsson, Jan O. 1999. “Explaining Sex Differences in Educational Choice An Empirical Assessment of a Rational Choice Model.” European Sociological Review 15(4):391–404.

Breda, Thomas, and Clotilde Napp. 2019. “Girls’ Comparative Advantage in Reading Can Largely Explain the Gender Gap in Math-Related Fields.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 116(31):15435–40.

Kübler, Dorothea, Julia Schmid, and Robert Stüber. 2018. “Gender Discrimination in Hiring Across Occupations: A Nationally-Representative Vignette Study.” Labour Economics 55:215–29.

第4回 負担が偏る出産・育児(9月14日)

Budig, Michelle J., and Paula England. 2001. “The Wage Penalty for Motherhood.” American Sociological Review 66(2):204–25.

Cukrowska-Torzewska, Ewa, and Anna Matysiak. 2020. “The Motherhood Wage Penalty: A Meta-Analysis.” Social Science Research 88-89:102416.

Kleven, Henrik, Camille Landais, Johanna Posch, Andreas Steinhauer, and Josef Zweimüller. 2019. “Child Penalties across Countries: Evidence and Explanations.” AEA Papers and Proceedings 109:122–26.


England, Paula, Jonathan Bearak, Michelle J. Budig, and Melissa J. Hodges. 2016. “Do Highly Paid, Highly Skilled Women Experience the Largest Motherhood Penalty?” American Sociological Review 81(6):1161–89.

第5回 就業中断とキャリアの断絶(9月15日)



Yu, Wei-Hsin. 2002. “Jobs for Mothers: Married Women’s Labor Force Reentry and Part-Time, Temporary Employment in Japan.” Sociological Forum 17(3):493–523.

第6回 評価の差を生むバイアス(9月18日)

Claudia, Goldin, and Cecilia Rouse. 2000. “Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of ‘Blind’ Auditions on Female Musicians.” American Economic Review 90(4):715–41.

Correll, Shelley J., Stephen Benard, and In Paik. 2007. “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?” American Journal of Sociology 112(5):1297–1338.

Auspurg, Katrin, Thomas Hinz, and Carsten Sauer. 2017. “Why Should Women Get Less? Evidence on the Gender Pay Gap from Multifactorial Survey Experiments.” American Sociological Review 82(1):179–210.

Mun, Eunmi, and Naomi Kodama. 2021. “Meritocracy at Work?: Merit-Based Reward Systems and Gender Wage Inequality.” Social Forces 100(4):1561–91.

第7回 仕事の構造が抱える問題(9月19日)

Goldin, Claudia. 2021. Career and Family: Women’s Century-Long Journey toward Equity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(鹿田昌美訳,2023,『なぜ男女の賃金に格差があるのか:女性の生き方の経済学』慶應義塾大学出版会.)

Cha, Youngjoo, and Kim A. Weeden. 2014. “Overwork and the Slow Convergence in the Gender Gap in Wages.” American Sociological Review 79(3):457–84.

Ishizuka, Patrick, and Kelly Musick. 2021. “Occupational Inflexibility and Women’s Employment During the Transition to Parenthood.” Demography 58(4):1249–74.

Babcock, Linda, Maria P. Recalde, Lise Vesterlund, and Laurie Weingart. 2017. “Gender Differences in Accepting and Receiving Requests for Tasks with Low Promotability.” American Economic Review 107(3):714–47.

Nelson, Laura K., Alexandra Brewer, Anna S. Mueller, Daniel M. O’Connor, Arjun Dayal, and Vineet M. Arora. 2023. “Taking the Time: The Implications of Workplace Assessment for Organizational Gender Inequality.” American Sociological Review 00031224231184264.

第8回 少子化の進展に与える影響(9月20日)

Sweeney, Megan M. 2002. “Two Decades of Family Change: The Shifting Economic Foundations of Marriage.” American Sociological Review 67(1):132–47.

Ono, Hiromi. 2003. “Women’s Economic Standing, Marriage Timing, and Cross-National Contexts of Gender.” Journal of Marriage and Family 65(2):275–86.


Brinton, Mary C., and Eunsil Oh. 2019. “Babies, Work, or Both? Highly Educated Women’s Employment and Fertility.” American Journal of Sociology 125(1):105–40.

Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, and Francesco C. Billari. 2015. “Re-Theorizing Family Demographics.” Population and Development Review 41(1):1–31.

Kolk, Martin. 2019. “Weak Support for a U-Shaped Pattern between Societal Gender Equality and Fertility When Comparing Societies across Time.” Demographic Research 40:27–48.

第9回 根本に踏み込む政策が必要(9月21日)